Table of Contents


Williamson's Chem 101

Contact me at

Please put "chem 101" in the subject line of your e-mail to me. I answer student e-mail first and the others go into junk mail, so your messages will go to junk without chem 101 in the subject line! I only ck junk every couple of weeks or so!




Between 11/20 and 11/27 watch the video replacement for the lecture on 11/27! The taped lecture in place of the 11/27 lecture is posted on the protected homepage

T 11/21- Dr. W office hours 2-4, Brooke office hours 4-6.

W 11/22-Homework on Bond Energy is due at 7am. The university is closed on W 11/22, so NO class! Happy Turkey Day!! NO OFFICE HOURS & NO SI!

Su 11/26- Homework from the M 11/20 lecture is due by 11:59pm

M 11/27- OPTIONAL review session during your class period. Bring your clickers, but these won't count for a grade. Dr. W will have office hours from 11:30-12:30 and 3-4.

T 11/28- Essay assignment is due by midnight. These are submitted to turnitin. See the section below on special essay assignment .Brooke will have office hours from 4-6

W 11/29 - Normal Class. Solids and Liquids power point needed. First lecture on it. This material will NOT be on your exam 4, but WILL be on the final. You will need this new ppt for W 11/29. It is posted on the protected page. Homework from the taped gas lecture is due at 7am. Dr. W will have office hours from 11:30-1:00 and 3-4:30

R 11/30- Dr. W will have office hours from 1:30- 4:30 Please do your university evaluation of the lecture class by midnight!!! Go to your TAMU email. Find an email sent at 8 AM on Monday from Dr. Simon North. There will be 1 email for each chemistry course you are in. Find the email with Williamson. Click on the link in the email to do the lecture evaluation for LECTURE (NOT THE LAB)! Do not forward this email to classmates; links are unique to prevent multiple evaluations by a single student.

F 12/1- Exam 4. Sample exams are up. You will omitt the questions indicated that deal with liquids and solids, but these will be on the final. The exam will cover thermochemistry and gas laws. All of the lectures for both of these topics are on the protected page. Expect all multiple-choice.

Su 12/3- Homework from the W 11/29 lecture is due at 11:59pm.

M/12/4- This is a normal day of lecture. This will be the 2nd lecture on liquids and solids. Assignment #6, a survey on what has helped you learn is linked today by 3pm on M 12/4. Begin this assignment by clicking here to begin. Do your assignment #6 by 11:59pm on Thursday 12/7. The survey is due by midnight on R 12/7. Dr. W will have office hours from 11:30-1:00 and 3-4:30

T 12/5- No office hours today

W 12/6 - This is the last day of class. We will finish the liquids/solid and review for the final.This material will NOT be on your exam 4, but WILL be on the final. Homework from the taped gas lecture is due at 7am. Dr. W will have office hours from 11:30-1:00 and 3-4:30 THESE ARE THE LAST OFFICE HOURS!

R 12/7- Reading day- no exams or classes. Assignment #6 (a survey) is due by midnight.

Sa 12/9-Homework from the W 12/6 lecture on liquids and solids is due at 11:59pm. This is the last homework.

Su 12/10-Your last assignment (#7) is the review on chapter 11 is due by 11:59pm. Do this as soon as you finish the homework on chapter 11. Get 16 of the 24pts for the full 4 pts for assignments.

T 12/12- Your FINAL is on 12/12. Expect ABOUT 6-8 questions from the material on exam 1, 2, 3, and 4, plus 6-8 on the new material from lectures on 11/29, 12/4, ; 12/6. Expect 35-40 questions (like a double exam), but you will have 120 minutes (not just 2 x 50). For the final, you will do the 'extra' questions from sample exam 4, plus print out all 8 sample exams to redo. I will aslo have all chapter reviews open and 'due' on 12/12.

**Enrolling in CHEM 102 for Spring 2018
I am teaching CHEM 102 at 10:20 and 1:50 MWF for Spring 2018. Be aware that numbers are slowly changed with different enrollment groups, like only up by 5 seats at a time. This is controlled by the undergraduate advisor, Dr. Gaede or Dr. Mawk. Eventually, the class size will be about 250-300. When there are a very few seats left in any 102 course SECTIONS 501-508, this is your signal that the limits are going to raise soon. You can also enroll during open enrollment, which will be from Nov 30 til Dec 14 and will begin again in early January until after class begins.

There will be a number of people who don't return to TAMU, change major, didn't pass 101, or just decided not to take the chem 102 who will be dropping during the week before class begins and during the first week. Try to enroll at the beginning of your period, then watch the on-line enrollment carefully. You can switch classes through the first week of class in Jan. You can attend BOTH my lecture class and the one one you are enrolled in while you watch for openings. If you try to switch lecture sections, you MUST drop the old and add the new in one screen, such that 1 click does this. Otherwise the second you drop the lecture, you will be removed from the lab. This works the same if you are trying to switch lab times.

In Fall 2017, at the end of the add/drop week, I had 1 opening in both 10:20 and 1:50 class that were not filled, so you have to watch carefully until the end of add/drop. The 10:20 class is currently limited to the College of Science, but this will be dropped once they all enroll, like it was this semester (the requirement was dropped after 220 students this semester).

IF you purchased a 24 month code to MindTap, but take a class that uses OWL for chem 102, Cengage will swap codes for you (likewise for a student who purchased a 24 month OWL code, but enrolls in one of my sections for chem 102). BOTH OF MY SECTIONS will be using MindTAP (Cengage will trade codes between OWL and MindTap).

If you have a very good reason why you must take one of my sections and not another time/prof, Dr. H. Gaede or Dr. E.J. Mawk in the main chemistry building are the only ones that can force you in. She/he does not do this for professor or time preferences, only for school/work conflicts AND once the class is almost at capacity. They will ask for documentation from your boss for work conflicts. See me first, if you can give these reasons (preference of instructor is not acceptable), then I will send you to her/him. It is too now early, they will say to just keep watching.

If you are currently in my chem 101 class and can't get into the 102 section you want, but CAN get into my other 102 section, then enroll in it and I will let you attend the section you want. See me about being enrolled in one section and attending another. This is harder if you need to take another class at the time of the class you are really enrolled in, but see me for more info about how with a memo from me, your undergrad advisor can give you an enrollment override. IF YOU DECIDE TO CHANGE LABS, BE SURE TO DO THE ADD AND DROP IN 1 SCREEN SUCH THAT WITH 1 CLICK YOU SWITCH LAB SECTIONS. Otherwise, the system will drop you from the first lab, along with the lecture!!

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Exam Reviews



Click Here to Access these items on the Protected Hompage A password will be given in class

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Click here for the answers to questions YOU probably meant to ask: Frequently asked questions from e-mail are posted here by topic.  There are also practice questions and answers.

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**What are my recorded grades??? See your grades on ecampus.

**How do I calculate my MIDTERM grade???
Click here! At midterm, we had 178 points possible (E1 = 100 pts, Hw 1-3 = 30 pts, Assign 1-3= 12 pt, and Pre-course module 36 pts) NOTE: clicker points will not be in Midterm grades, nor will anything be dropped. This is NOT midway of the 716 pts possible in the course.

**How do I calculate my FINAL grade???
Click here for an excel file that will download to your computer. This file is TENTATIVELY correct as of 10/23. Let me check it out during the next week. On Page 2, you can enter your grades for exam 1-4, homework, clickers, assignments and it will tell you what you need on the final. On Page 1, you can enter all grades (the ones you have earned from ecampus and estimate the remaining grades).
Click here! Print this out. Fill in your grades from ecampus leaving the final blank. Add your points up. This is your points without the final. You can subtract the points you have from the lowest number needed for a letter grade to see what you will have to make on the final for that letter grade. As a bonus, you can replace your lowest hourly exam with the % of your final.

**Is there any extra credit?  NO EXTRA CREDIT. (This is the policy for most college-level courses.) Only the credit offered on assignments, clickers, homework, exams is available.

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Office Hours

Dr. W's office hours
are in room 123B HELD:

Monday 11:30-12:30, 3-4
Wednesday 11:30-12:30- 3-4:30
Thursday 1:30-4:00

email me at:

**Please put chem 101 in the subject line of your e-mails to me. Otherwise, it will go to junk.

Jameon's SI Hours:

Sunday 7-8 HECC 203
Monday 7-8 HECC 105
Wednesday 7-8 HECC 105

email Jameon at:

See the class goggle group at:

Brooke's IA office hours are in room 123B HELD:

Tuesday 4-6

email Brooke at:

From time to time, Dr. W and your IA will hold extra office hours; these will be posted under 'announcements'

FREE Drop-In Tutoring

1) TA's in 406 HELD hold office hours to answer your questions for both lab (Chem 111) and lecture (Chem 101). See the schedule posted inside the room to find your TA or a TA you prefer. TA office hours begin on Monday 9/4. Check the schedule outside room 406 HELD, there will be a TA on Duty from 8-6 M-W and 8-5 on R and F

2)THE TUTOR ZONES sponsored by the ACADEMIC SUCESS CENTER offers free drop-in tutoring. For details of courses and schedules, please see their web site at: 458-4900.

Tutors wear red Tutor Zone t-shirts, and you should see Tutor Zone signs. HELP is located at Tutor Zones in these locations, BEGINNING ON 9/3!!

*Evans location:
located on the 1st floor of Evans Library outside of the Poetry Circle
Get help here for Chem 101 from 5-9 on Su, M, T, W AND R

*Hullaballoo Hall
Room 105
Get help here for Chem 101 from 5-9 on Su, M, T, W R

*The Commons:
Room 110 A & B
Get help here for Chem 101 from 5-9pm on Su, M, T, W, R

*White Creek Apts
Multipurpose Room
Get help here for Chem 101 from 5-9 on Su, T, and R

Click here for a brochure about other free tutoring on campus!

PAID Individual Tutoring
See me during office hours for ideas about individuals who will tutor for hire in one-to-one sessions.

PAID Group Tutoring
**I don't really recommend any tutoring agency. I think you can pick it up yourself or with the free help available (the SI, the IA, the 406 HELD help desk, the tutor zones, MindTap reviews, my office hours, the sample exams, and reviews movies!). I think the problem with these tutoring agencies is that they teach: 1) methods other than what I do, so students get confused and remember about 1/2 of each so mess up the exams and 2) shortcuts that only work in certain circumstances, so students miss it when I give questions. Use the free tutoring if possible; but if you insist on group tutoring see me, as some a MUCH better than others!

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You will have 7 sets of homework assignments, worth 10 pts each. When you miss a problem your online homework will show you how to work it or give you hints about how to work it. Then you will be given a similar, but different problem on your next attempt. You will have 5-10 attempts to get the problems correct.

Only the required assignments MUST be done. The others are for your study. You only need to do the required number of questions (e.g., 2 of 3). No extra credit for doing 3 of 3.

No difference in credit by attempts. You get the same credit if you complete the assignments on the first try or on the last try. No deductions for the number of tries it takes you to get to the required number of questions. Scroll to see all assignments in MindTap when in the weekly view

For 502 AND 506 using MindTap or Young, Vining, et al. MindTap General Chemistry: Atoms First book: Credit is given for the number of assignments (tutor questions and interactive questions) and mastery exercises that are mastered by the due date. Things like the Review, Challenge, and Study Guide are usually for your practice. I recommend these for study AFTER we have finished a chapter.

So if you master all that are assigned, you should receive full credit (10 homework points). The total possible is the addition of the numbers for all graded assignments. For each set, if you did all or at least 95% you will get 10 pts. If you get 90% of them, you will get 9 pts, 80% = 8pts, 70% = 7 pts, 60% = 6 pts, 50% = 5pt, 40% = 4 pts, below 40% = 0 pts.

If you have computer or connection issues, please note that there are computers in the student computing center, which you can use for homework, etc.  You will need your netID and password.

Use this website to login after you are registered in the course: Login from this address, NOT from the ecampus link! Ecampus is down too often!

** See: > to buy your homework/textbook systen from this website to get the TAMU prices. This deal will ONLY be available from our TAMU link. The publisher offers a 14-day free trial that can be used until you purchase your access code. If you want to take this option, see under To Register below.

**To Purchaseyour textbook bundle go to when you click on chem 101/102, then our section, and purchase, you now have a number of options.

You can purchase the materials for one semester with both electronic and a hardcopy of the book (epack) this should cost you $64, but if you don’t want the hardcopy, then it is $45. These are for 6 months of access. If you are part of the very small group, whose major only requires chem 101, but NOT chem 102, then you want to buy the $64 or $45 6-month version. See below for comments about the hardcopy book.

If you are required to take both chem 101 and 102 for your major, then the cheapest is to buy a 24 month access, where the epack version with the hardcopy of the book is $85 (epack), or you can get the 24 month code without the hard copy of the book for $90 (yes it is higher). In the event that you take chem 102 with a prof who uses OWL instead of MindTap AND you purchased a 24 month code, Cengage will trade codes for free.

You will get immediate access to electronic things and if you purchased a hard copy, the 3-hole punched, color hard copy of the textbook will be shipped to you. The copy of the textbook may be backordered but they will mail it to you when it is ready. The homework system is really embedded in the e-book, such that you read a short section of the book on screen, then have questions right below it….. so unlike some homework systems the etext and the question are in the same screen. Last term, only about 1/2 of my students wanted the print copy (others wanted a print copy available after the code you can decide which one to buy.

If you purchased your materials for more $$ than listed, I would recommend that you take them back for a refund, then purchase them on-line (the bookstore charges $133 for the $85 bundle*?!).

**When ordering your MindTap materials: It won’t matter that the bundle is out of stock, if you are ordering online from You will get immediate access to the MindTap homework-ebook mix. It is just that Cengage will mail you the hardcopy when it comes into stock, which is usually pretty quickly. You should go ahead and complete the purchase! You will get immediate access to the ebook-homework and the hardcopy will be mailed later. (Quite a number of my students really don't use the hardcopy book.)

**To Register: You can click on register from our class on You will be asked to sign in as a returning student or as a new student. If you just purchased your book using the steps above, use the email and password you set up with Cengage brain as a returning student. If you purchased the book from the bookstore, you will choose new student, set up the account, and enter the access code that will be on a card inside the book. You can also opt to set up a 14-day free trial. You could wait until the Homework help desk opens during the first week. The dates and times it is open will be posted. The TA here can help you through buying and registering your code. Since homework is due on 9/3, you need to get this taken care of soon after school begins if you wait for the helpdesk.


**9/12/17- three reports of graphics not displaying in 3.1M and 3.2a. Try to switch to another browser. Firefox, Safari, Chrome, etc. A number of those reporting issues were using Chrome. Firefox or Safari may be better options.

**If you have trouble with the buttons not appearing on the screen for a homework assingment, try another browser like FIREFOX. Chrome seems to have an issue with this, as in assignment 7.1b.

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For the objectives and homework for Exam 1, click here (This is the set that you received in class on 9/1.)
For the objectives and homework for Exam 2, click here!  (You will received a copy of this in class on 9/27).
For the objectives and homework for Exam 3, click here (You received a copy of this in class on 10/25)
For the objectives and homework for Exam 4,click here (You will received a copy of this in class on 11/10 or 11/13.)

You will need acrobat reader to see and print these.  These are the same as those passed out in class. If you need acrobat reader click here.

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Click here or the syllabus and TENTATIVE calendar in pdf. This is also on HOWDY and was emailed to you!

You will need acrobat reader to see and print these. If you need acrobat reader click here

**Students cannot use calculators that are programmable or have alpha-numeric capabilities for the exams. This means no TI-eighty anything. You CAN NOT use a TI-83 since it has alphabetic memory. You need a TI 30 or 36 or its Casio equilivent. The calculator cannot have alphabetic memory. It should cost $9-15. Be sure to buy one with the keystrokes you like. For example: TI-83 requires that you put in log then the number. If you want this same keystroke for your lower calculator, then at the store, hit the log button. If the calculator gives you an error, this calculator will require that you put in the number, then hit log. If the calculator says log and is ready for the number, this calculator has the same keystrokes as your TI-8X.

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There are 10 points in the syllabus for the essay assignment. 

Want a copy of the yellow sheet that was passed out in class on 10/30 that describes how to logon to Click here for a pdf of the sheet.

From the handout:
Once your essay is uploaded and processed, any part of your text in color can be considered by me to be plagiarized. We know that your references, a common set of words or a common list will be colored or flagged. These do not matter or count as plagiariam.
  Since this is a causal paper, you really shouldn't use quotes. As listed on the bottom of your handout sheet.

-1 or -2 for low word count
-1 for copied sentence or not citing a quote (multiple sentences = multiple deductions)
-1 for each of the 3 references you were missing (remember 1 had to be a written source)
-4 or -8 for problems with originality that were not references, technical terms, or quotes.

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** If you think there was an error in grading your exam after you compare the score you get with grading duing the key and the grade posted on ecampus. go to 412 HELD, fill out a regrade form, and turn it in. They will make a copy of your scan, hand grade it, and tell you when you can pick up the form and copy.

**If you want to see your exams, come in during office hours (IA's or mine). You may only visit your exam until the next exam. You can rework the problems, but NOT copy the questions down.

**If you missed an exam and need to sign up for the makeup exam, see or e-mail me. Makeups are granted for university reasons (or VERY good ones). Otherwise, the missed exam is the one you will replace with the final percentage.

**If you didn't like your exam 1 score, remember that your final percentage can replace your lowest hourly exam, but you don't want a second low exam, so: (1) Download the grade calculator in the grades section below. and (2) Review your exam during any office hour before exam 2 to decide on a personal strategy for improvement. Also remember that your clicker, homework, and assignments pts should be 135 pts (15 + 70 +20) on which you should have at or near 100% on. IF you are doing these, you can make a little lower on exams than the letter grade you want in the course.


Exam I = Class Average =73.2 /100 pts for the total exam (MC +1) for both classes. (click here for the 10:20 key) AND (click here for the 1:50 key) Congrats to the 16 perfect scores and 79 others with 90% or better ---so 95 A's, 163 B's, 155 C's, 69 D's, 124 F's

  Most missed (less than 50% correct): Poorly done (59-50% correct):
For 10:20

1. Emission of highest frequency
2. Largest number of unpaired electrons in ions and atoms

1. Find wavelength in nm given g and velocity in m/s
For 1:50

1. Find wavelength in nm given g and velocity in m/s
2. Absorption of highest frequency

1. Smallest number of unpaired electrons in ions and atoms
2. Sig figs when subtracting then multiplying

Exam II= 62/ 77 pts for the multiple choice part and 79.8 pts/100 pts for the total exam. (click here for the 10:20 key) (The 10:20 key was changed about 11:30 on 10/23 for P#9, B #13, and Y #11) AND (click here for the 1:50 key). (Note: the 1:50 key was changed about 3:30 on 10/23 for G #13, W #10, L #13)

Congrats to the 32 perfect scores on the total exam and 180 others with 90% or better on the total exam (so 212 A's, 181 B's, 99 C's, 62 D's, 56 F's

  Most missed (less than 50% correct): Poorly done (59-50% correct):
For 10:20

1. Which is false? Lewis dot for an As atom, formula mass for barium hydroxide octahydrate is 144 amu more than anhydrous, number of resonance forms NO2Cl

1. Largest # of H atoms in 1 gram of cmp
2. Theories definitions (VSEPR, VB, MO)

For 1:50 1. none

1. none, but just over 60% on the same 2 questions as 10:20

Exam III = 76.2/100pts for the total multiple-choice exam. (click here for the 10:20 key) AND (click here for the 1:50 key). Congrats to the 38 perfect scores and 100 others with 90% or better on the total exam (so 138 A's, 149 B's, 144 C's, 61 D's)

  Most missed (less than 50% correct): Poorly done (59-50% correct):
For 10:20

1. Net ionic of a weak base and strong acid

1. Particles to give 4 Fluorine gas + two carbon atoms makes 2 CF4 molecules, how many CF4 would be made from 12 molecules of fluorine gas.

For 1:50 1. Particles to give 4 Fluorine gas + two carbon atoms makes 2 CF4 molecules, how many CF4 would be made from 12 molecules of fluorine gas

1. Net ionic of a weak base and strong acid
2. Which is false # of particles when a solid dissolves, H2CO3 breaks into H2O and CO2, operational definitions of acids and bases, driving force for rxn of a metal and a compound using metal reactivity.


Exam IV = xx/100 pts for the total exam. (click here for the 10:20 key) AND (click here for the 1:50 key).Congrats to the xx perfect scores and xx others with 90% or above (xx A's, xxB's, xx C's, xx D's)!!

  Most missed (less than 50% correct): Poorly done (59-50% correct):
For 10:20

1.Signs of delta H, w, and delta E when 2 solutions react to form a ppt. and another solution with a cold beaker

1. Calorimeter, find kJ/mol
2. Given equation + delta H, find heat for grams of one reactant

For 1:50

1. Given equation + delta H, find heat for grams of one reactant

1. Calorimeter, find kJ/mol
2. Equation where delta E differs from delta H the most

FINAL =  xx pts /165 required pts (xx pts possible). (click here for the 10:20 key) AND (click here for the 1:50 keyCongrats to the 11 100% scores and 70 others with 90% or above (81 A's, 156 B's, 91 C's, 66 D's,)!!

**Why is the exam average important??? There is no extra credit. I don't curve, but will lower the points required for each grade at the end of the semester, based to a large part on the averages on the exams. Use the average to let you know both how you are doing compared to the class and how the class is doing. also remember that your exam grades can be a little lower than you want for the course, since your quizzes (36 pts) and homework (70 pts) are more than a test grade, for which you should get close to 100, in addition to the 1 exam grade that you can drop.

**I do not return exams. You can review your exam and rework the problems on your exam. You cannot copy the questions word-for-word but may take notes on the concepts that you missed. You can do this anytime during my office hours or during your IA'soffice hours. You can only review exam 1 until we have exam 2, and so forth. You will receive any short answer part back once it is graded.

**To study for the exam, do: 
1) your homework (at least some of each required section),
2) the two sample exams,
3) go over your objective sheet,
4) practice any objectives that you are weak on by doing more problems on that topic (on OWL click on 'past due assignments' to do any OLD OWL assignments for review)
5) Do a quick read of the sections that are stated on your objective sheet.
6) Finally, go over the sample exams again, this time read the question and say HOW to work the problem, then uncover your answer and see if you know how to work the problem by reading it.
7) Then get a good night's sleep!!

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The university approved non-REEF iclicker2 is ISBN- 9781429280471. It costs 56.00 new or $45.90 used, plus tax for the device. Both have no cost to register your clicker into a course. We won’t use the reef polling, but you might need the new for other classes. BUT the one with reef polling will do the plain polling we will do. Once you buy the clicker, you can use it for all your courses that require i>clickers for the remainder of your time at Texas A&M. You can also resell it. There are options to rent, but if you would have to rent both semesters for chem 101 and 102, it is cheaper to buy then resell later. Two students can share a clicker as long as they are not in the same class (students in one of my sections can’t share with a student in another of my sections). You can purchase your iclicker2 at the Texas A&M Bookstore and other bookstores, We will use the iclicker everyday, BUT it will be the second week or so until we begin counting it for a grade!

Register your iclickers at This is also linked on ecampus. WHEN YOU REGISTER YOUR CLICKERS, USE YOUR TAMU UIN, no dashes or spaces! We will use iclicker classic, and TAMU uses blackboard for its learning management system.

Your clicker grades are 1 pt for each correct answer up to 3 questions + 1 for responding, which you will receive if ALL questions are wrong. This means that if there is 1 question during the lecture, it will be a 2 pt day. If there are 3 questions, it will be a 4 pt day. If there are 4 questions, it will be a 4 pt day because I will take your best 3 questions +1. Clicker pts do NOT equal course points. If you get 70% of the clicker pts, then you will get all 15 course pts, if you get 65 to 69% then you get 14, etc. as spelled out in the syllabus. The threshold is low to allow for bad batteries, university absences,dentist appts, etc. and since I have just lectured on a topic, I would expect a low C. Therefore a low C or 70% is all you need for full course credit.

**Chem 101 is the lecture course.  Chem 111 is the lab course.  These are separate courses. Chem 111 will be taught by a Teaching Assistant (a TA).  Dr. Lee and Dr. Bethel are the lab coordinators, in charge of curriculum and grades.  The instructor listed on Howdy, is only the lab apparel safety inspector! If you have questions about the lab course contact Dr. Lee at or Dr. Bethel at rbethel@chem.tamu.ed (not the safety inspector).

**Want to make your plain goggles colorful??  Click here for the instructions on how to dye your goggles.  Get with friends to color a bunch at once!

**Wondering about the Zika Virus? Click here for a movie from the American Chemical Society that is straightforward

** You can click complex molecules and see a 3D image of them

**Want to see a movie about the quantum world? Click here. Chemists usually stay with electrons, protons, and neutrons. These are split by Physicists who go deeper into quarks and leptons (6 of each), plus antiparticles.

**See this article about the benefits of taking notes by hand vs. keyboard:

**See the tanker car implode due to cooling vapor which causes lower pressure inside than the atmospheric pressure outside at:

**See a good video on molecular bonding and geometry at:

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